On March 28, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted first approvals for two monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics, ocrelizumab (OCREVUS) and dupilumab (Dupixent®). Ocrelizumab is indicated for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) and primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), while dupilumab is a treatment for adults with moderate-to-severe eczema (atopic dermatitis).
Ocrelizumab (OCREVUS), a humanized IgG1 mAb targeting CD20, is the first drug approved by the FDA for PPMS. Ocrelizumab was granted FDA’s Breakthrough Therapy and Fast Track designations, and its application received priority review. A marketing application for ocrelizumab for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis and primary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is being reviewed by the European Medicines Agency. The marketing applications are based on positive results from three Phase 3 studies, OPERA I (NCT01247324), OPERA II (NCT01412333), and ORATORIO (NCT01194570). Identical in their study design, OPERA I and OPERA II evaluated the efficacy and safety of 600 mg ocrelizumab intravenously (IV) administered every six months compared with 44 mg interferon beta-1a (Rebif®) subcutaneously administered 3 times per week in 1,656 people with relapsing forms of MS. Compared with Rebif®, ocrelizumab showed superior efficacy in reducing annualized relapse rates and disability progression sustained for at least three and for at least six months. The ORATORIO study evaluated the efficacy and safety of 600 mg ocrelizumab administered by IV infusion every six months compared with placebo in 732 people with primary progressive MS. Compared to patients who received placebo, patients who received ocrelizumab in this study showed significant reductions in disability progression sustained for at least three and for at least six months, as well as in other measures of progressive disease.
Dupilumab (Dupixent®), an anti-IL-4Ra IgG4 mAb, was granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis, and the biologics license application was granted a priority review by FDA. The safety and efficacy of Dupixent were established in three placebo-controlled clinical trials with a total of 2,119 adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis not adequately controlled by topical medication(s). A marketing application for dupilumab is being reviewed by the European Medicines Agency.
The Antibody Society maintains a comprehensive table of approved antibody therapeutics and those in regulatory review in the EU or US. As of March 28, 2017, marketing applications for a total of 10 antibody therapeutics that have not been approved in any country are undergoing review in the EU or US. In addition, marketing applications for sarilumab, which is approved in Canada, and gemtuzumab ozogamicin, which was FDA approved in 2000 and subsequently withdrawn from the US market, are undergoing review in the EU and US.
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